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What is a Futures Contract?

Futures Contracts traded on the Borsa Istanbul (BIST) Futures and Options Market (VIOP) are contracts with a standard contract size and maturity, traded in an organized exchange market, and issued on capital market instruments and economic and financial indicators. The VIOP is a market enabling players to electronically buy or sell a set of economic or financial indicators, capital market instruments, commodities, precious metals or currencies of a predetermined price, amount and description at a future date.

The VIOP allows trading in such instruments as equities, equity indices, currencies (USD/TRY, EUR/TRY, EUR/USD), gold, commodities and electricity futures contracts.

Why should I invest in a Futures Contract?

  • Hedging Transactions
    Futures provide the opportunity of protection against potential future unexpected and unforeseen price fluctuations in the contract markets. An investor holding a future-dated receivable or payment in foreign currency takes a position opposite to his/her position in the spot market. This provides the investor with not only the opportunity of protection against any risk arising from potential future price fluctuations, but also the advantage of making forward-looking and future-oriented financial projections.
  • Investment Transactions
    Investors trade in line and in tandem with their price expectations in the markets. They usually invest to make a profit by selling at a higher price the assets they purchased at a lower price or by buying at a lower price the assets sold at a high price. Thus, they contributeto the increase of liquidity in the markets.
  • Arbitrage-based Futures
    Through arbitrage-based futures, by synchronically trying to capture price differences between spot and futures markets, investors aim to make a risk-free profit from these price differences by buying in the low price market and selling in the high price market.
  • Portfolio Diversification
    Futures offer various different alternatives for portfolio diversification, thereby spreading the risks. Furthermore, rather than buying stocks one by one, investors may trade on the BIST-30 Index through a single instrument.
  • Leverage Advantage
    In VIOP, trading provides the opportunity to take a larger position with a low margin level.
  • Two-way Trading
    In VIOP, short selling is permitted. Thus, investors have the opportunity to make a profit not only when the prices rise, but also when they fall in the market.
  • Counterparty Risk
    In VIOP, margins are kept under the guarantee of the Clearing Bank.
  • Tax Advantage
    In VIOP, proceeds of contracts based on equities and equity indices are subject to a 0% withholding tax, while this tax rate is 10% for proceeds of contracts other than the contracts based on equities and equity indices. The tax rate applicable on earnings of corporate investors is also 0%.

Initial Margins for Futures Contracts

Contrats Initial Margin
XU030 1.560₺
XLBNK 1.740₺
X10XB 2.050₺
USD/TRY 870₺

USD/TRYK

870₺

EUR/TRY 1090₺
**EUR/USD 30$
**GBP/USD  55$
CHN/TRY 1.385₺
RUB/TRY 1.300₺
COTEGE (Cotton) 1.465₺
WHTANR (Wheat) 1.510₺
WHTDRM  2.235₺
XAU/TRY (Gold) 60₺
**XAU/USD  110$
*XAG/USD (Silver) 30$
**XPT/USD (Platinum) 95$
**XPD/USD (Palladium) 375$
ELCBASM (Electiricity) 4.165₺
ELCBASQ 7.155₺
ELCBASY 15.480₺
HMSTR (Steel) 540$
TELRF (Interest) 1.495₺
Contrats Initial Margin
AKBNK 90₺
ARCLK 460₺
ASELS 265₺
AEFES 335₺
ALKIM

270₺

BIMAS 790₺
CCOLA 1.235₺
DOHOL 50₺
ECILC 110₺
EKGYO 30₺
ENJSA 175₺
EREGL 260₺
FROTO 3.220₺
GARAN 160₺
GUBRF 970₺
HALKB 80₺
HEKTS

135₺

ISCTR 80₺
ISFIN

95₺

ISGYO

30₺

IPEKE 375₺
KARSN

80₺

KCHOL 290₺
Contrats Initial Margin
KOZAA 445₺
KOZAL 2095₺
KRDMD 135₺
MGROS 655₺
MPARK

455₺

ODAS

30₺

OYAKC 125₺
PETKM 95₺
PGSUS 1.305₺
SAHOL 130₺
SASA 790₺
SASX10 60₺
SISE 120₺
SOKM 200₺
TAHVL 385₺
TCELL 190₺
THYAO 210₺
TKFEN 190₺
TOASO 605₺
TSKB 20₺
TTKOM 100₺
TRGYO 65₺
TURSG 95₺
TUPRS 1.485₺
ULKER 285₺
VAKBN 55₺ 
VESTEL  645₺
YKBNK 40₺

*2.5 times of the collateral obligation determined by Takasbank.

**2 times of the collateral obligation determined by Takasbank.

Explanation:

The figures provided in this table may be changed by the Clearing Bank at various times. At the end of every day, a Margin Call is issued for the accounts remaining below the initial margin.

An example of a BIST 30 Index Future Contract:

Let us assume that we buy one contract (long position) at a price of 1.620,50 through a BIST 30 Index future contract. With an Initial Margin of TL 1655 Contract = Index/10 volume may be traded.*

Long Position – Buying

Initial Margin required to be held in our account: 1.655 TL

Buying Price: 1.620,50

Selling Fiyatı: 1.630

Buying Transaction Amount: 1.620,50*1*10=16.205,00

Selling Transaction Amount: 1.630*1*10/ 10=16.300

Leverage: 16.205/1.655=9,79

Profit: 16.300-16.205=95 TL

Thus, when the position is closed, our account will contain 1.655+95 = 1.750 TL.

*In VIOP, the index value is expressed as one per thousand of the spot, but the trading volume is 100 folds this figure. Thus, a volume of one-tenth of the index value is achieved.

What is an Option Contract?

An Option Contract is a bilateral contract allowing the buyer to buy or sell an asset underlying the option at a predetermined strike price at any time up to a certain maturity, in consideration of a certain amount (option premium) paid in advance. On the other side, it is a derivative instrument obliging the seller to sell or buy, as the case may be, an asset or financial indicator underlying the option contract if and when the buyer uses his rights thereunder. Option contracts are by nature insurance-providing contracts.

Option Sides

  • Option Buyer → pays a premimum - right owner
  • Option Seller → collects the premium - holder of obliggation

Buy (Call) Option

  • Grants the premium paying (option buying) side the right to buy the underlying asset.
  • On the other side, holds the premium collecting (option selling) side obliged to sell the underlying asset.

Sell (Put) Option

  • Grants the premium paying (option buying) side the right to sell the underlying asset.
  • On the other side, holds the premium collecting (option selling) side obliged to buy the underlying asset.

Stock Options

BIST offers Stock Options in VIOP for certain predetermined stocks.

Traded Stock Options

Equities Equities Code
Akbank AŞ AKBNK
Arçelik AŞ ARCLK
Aselsan  ASELS
Emlak Konut Gayrimenkul Yatırım EKGYO
Ereğli Demir ve Çelik Fabrikaları EREGL
Türkiye Garanti Bankası AŞ GARAN
Türkiye Halk Bankası AŞ HALKB
Türkiye İş Bankası ISCTR
Koç Holding AŞ KCHOL
Kardemir Karabük Demir Çelik KRDMD
Petkim Petrokimya Holding AŞ PETKM
Equities Equities Code
Pegasus Hava Taşımacılığı AŞ PGSUS
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Holding AŞ SAHOL
Türkiye Şişe ve Cam Fabrikaları SISE
Turkcell İletişim Hizmetleri AŞ TCELL
Türk Hava Yolları AO THYAO
Tofaş Türk Otomobil Fabrikası TOASO
Türk Telekomünikasyon AŞ TTKOM
Tüpras Türkiye Petrol Rafinerileri TUPRS
Türkiye Vakıflar Bankası TAO VAKBN
Yapı ve Kredi Bankası AŞ YKBNK

Advantages

  • Appropriate margin conditions
  • Opportunity to make a high profit with a limited investment due to the leverage effect
  • Protection against unexpected and unforeseen price movements
  • Opportunity to diversify the portfolio through correctly applied strategies for hedging purposes or for achieving a higher return at the same risk level

Risks

  • Risk to incur a high amount of losses due to the leverage effect
  • Due to risky positions taken, the resulting loss may lead to a loss of margin and the trades may be stopped
  • The risk of the option buyer is limited by the premium paid, while the risk of the option seller may be unlimited

Please click for more detailed information about Option Contracts

Futures and Options Exchange session hours*

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*Valid unless otherwise declared by Borsa Istanbul.

Futures and Options Trade Commissions

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Trading Channels

You may execute your VIOP trades with the help of our expert investment advisors based at our 22 Garanti BBVA Securities Branches, or via all of our platforms offered with quick, practical, reliable and rich content support anywhere you have internet access.

Please click to reach your closest Garanti BBVA Branches or Garanti BBVA Securities Branches for a VIOP account opening.

For any questions, you can access our Investor Support Center via telephone at 444 0 630 between 09:00 and 19:30 hours during the week days.

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